Jeffrey Chaucer (1343 - October 25, 1400), British novelist, poet. The main works are novel collection "Canterbury story set".
Chaucer was born in London, a wealthy businessman family, university education, familiar with French and Italian. In 1357 began to enter and leave the court, often after the visit to Europe, in Italy exposed to Dante, Bhagavaki and others works, which affected his later literary creation. Chaucer died in London in 1400, buried in the Westminster Abbey "poet's horn".杰弗雷·乔叟人物经历
Chaucer's mother named Agnes de Compton, father John Chaucer is a wealthy wine business. Chaucer's name comes from the word "Chaussier" (cobbler), suggesting that his ancestors are shoemakers. In 1357, Jeffrey was between 13 and 17 years old, Ren Ying Wang's son of Prince Edward Lionel and Prince of the Queen Elizabeth's young attendants.
1359 years to participate in the war when the law was captured, the next year by the king of redemption, 1361 - 1367 in the inner hall of the Association of law training, 1366 and Queen's palace woman married, after many times on behalf of Edward III to the European continent, Belgium, France, Italy and other countries, have the opportunity to meet Boccaccio and Petrak, which his literary creation had a great impact.
In 1374, Chaucer was the London fur management officer, and in 1382 served as the tariff manager for alcohol and other commodities.
In 1385, Chaucer was the magistrate of Kent, the second year was elected to the county knight to attend the lower house of parliament.
In 1389 years after the KMT government, Chaucer has served as the royal construction works and Somerset royal forest deputy director. Chaucer was deprived of official and annuities during the asylum of the asylum, and the economy was strained. He had written the oil poem "to the empty capsule" to just ascend to Henry IV, complain about their own poverty.
In 1400, Joao died and was buried at Poet's Corner in London's Westminster Church. He was also the first poet to be buried here.杰弗雷·乔叟创作特点
Theme of the work
Chaucer sharply expounded the nature of the church monks' fraud, greed and lustfulness, and the nature of obscurantism and "asceticism", which bravely broke through the barriers of religious thought. Ironic decadent secular ruling class, the verge of decadence of the feudal system carried out ruthless expose and criticism. Chaucer opposed the feudal hierarchy, propagated women's liberation, advocated equality between men and women, praised the freedom of faithful love. Chaucer also boldly exposed the evil of emerging capitalism.
Chou was in the middle of the old and new system, and was the man of the two societies, but he, like all humanists, was not only the inverse of the feudal society, but also the critics of the capitalist evil. One side and his anti-feudalism, anti-church, the other side of the capitalism just generated money interests have also been ruthless expose.
Chaucer's poems are divided into three periods:
① French influence period (1359 ~ 1372): the main translation and follow the French poet's work, created the "mourning the duchess", with the London dialect translation of the French medieval long narrative poem "rose legend" and so on.
② the Italian influence period (1372 ~ 1386): the poet came into contact with the progressive thinking of bourgeois humanism. The creation of this period, such as the "Birds Conference", "Troyes and Clay West", "good woman's story", reflects the author's life-oriented creative attitude and humanistic point of view.
③ mature period (1386 ~ 1400): Chaucer in the last 15 years in the "Canterbury story set" creation. Both in content and skills to achieve the pinnacle of his creation. His first heroic rhyme is widely used by British poets later, known as "the father of British poetry."
The early creation of Chaucer was influenced by Italian and French literature. He introduced the literature of knights in the French literature, the lyrics and animal fables, and so on. Its early works "Trolls and Clay West" (1385), character character to create vivid and delicate, language witty humor.
From 1377 onwards, Chaucer repeatedly made the European continent, in contact with Dante, Pietrak and Boccaccio and others works. These writers anti-feudal anti-religious spirit and humanism, so that Chaucer's creative thinking has undergone profound changes, began to turn to realism.
The common feature of the narrator in Chaucer's work is that he is keen on reading and being an outsider of love. His understanding of love is not from personal experience, but from a lot of reading. And as he is the poet, he writes most of the works, especially fantasy poems, are based on his reading, not from life. "Authority" rather than "experience" or reality is his source of writing. This is also consistent with the medieval literary tradition. Medieval mainstream literature, whether religious or court literature, are essentially far away from real life, immersed in the minds of people in the design, and through the "authority" for people recognized in the world. Medieval life is difficult, war, disease, natural disasters, man-made disasters are no threat to their daily life, they either want to live in religion, or indulge in the idealized, stylized court love and knight spirit, or fantasy a distant and beautiful classical "Golden Age". The typical genres of the Middle Ages, such as fantasies and meanings, concentrate on the medieval psychological tendencies of being free from reality, and indeed able to free the poet from the scope of real life, and freely in a "authority" Unreal world. Chaucer's main work on the dream and the book's reliance on his as a medieval writer of the times characteristics.
Chaucer is eclectic to classical literature and new literature. His greatest feature is humor, Chaucer's humor is lively, or tranquil, or rugged.